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Meet Women kittygirls year viewer mail. These areas were settled by Scots-Irish or if you prefer, Borderers who previously lived in herding communities on marginal lands. Herding communities have all their wealth tied up in animals. This leaves them very vulnerable to raiding, as all the wealth can be taken away. They live in low population densities, which makes law enforcement hard. Vulnerability to raids and lack of law enforcement means depending on oneself for protection. Depending on oneself means maintaining a good reputation for violence. An aggressive reputation means responding violently to insults. Therefore white men in the American Southeast are prone to violence over insults as a legacy of their pre-colonial culture.
Sommers goes on to say that farming communities are less profitable to raid and therefore can afford a much more individualistic orientation. It is interesting to me that Sommers is making some of the same comparisons between herders and farmers as other people make between farmers and foragersthough clearly herders and farmers are both part of the 'farmer' group in the latter comparison. Group identity is an important feature of honor cultures. Collective identity fosters collective responsibility, which is an incentive to do things which benefit the group. It is also yields harmony and cohesion in the face of external threats; Sommers points to some anthropologists who think this is the evolutionary function of feuds.
There is more in this section, but I'm going to jettison it in favor of this other interesting bit about duels: Or how about duels? Haven't we done well to move beyond that practice? Isn't it obvious that duels over honor were a divisive not to mention bloody force within society and not a unifying one? Historical and sociological research suggests that duels have a bit of a bad rap. The practice in fact offered many social benefits. In particular, duels served to maintain the egalitarian codes of an honor group. Indeed, early opponents of the duel, such as Francis Bacon and Cardinal Richelieu, opposed it on precisely these grounds.
Bacon wanted to expand the power of the monarchy and further distinguish ranks among gentlemen. The equalizing function of duels was an obstacle to the kind of hierarchy that he wanted to create. Duels were also much safer that commonly supposed. Dueling rituals were designed to testify to the honor of the combatants while at the same time minimizing the risk of death or injury. The combatants would use "inaccurate and weak smoothbore pistols" or swords that were "modified to prevent deep penetrating injuries. Thus it was less important to win than to display courage. The point about duels and egalitarianism is hit on repeatedly; this lingers on in the military and on school playgrounds at least as recently as the 's, albeit much less formally.
Feuds and duels make an excellent segue to violence. Sommers makes two arguments about violence: The costs of non-violence mostly consist of key phrases like zero-tolerance, school-to-prison pipeline, prison population, and leviathan. This is familiar and uninteresting.
Much more interesting is the nuanced morality angle. He cites the book Virtuous Violence by Alan Fiske and Tage Rai, the thesis of which is that violence is usually morally motivated: Their thesis is purely descriptive: According to Fiske and Rai, morality is about regulating relationships, and human beings employ four basic frameworks for regulating their relationships. The first involves acting within a community. The second involves acting within a hierarchy. The third involves issues of fairness and equality.
And the fourth involves proportionality and market exchange. Consider the question of oppression: Honor has played a key role in motivating people to fight their own oppression. Examples are given of Frederick Douglass: Douglass regarded his act of violent resistance as a watershed moment: At the outset of the twentieth century, W. DuBois called on black Americans to "sacrifice money, reputation, and life itself on the alter of right They saw themselves as victims and martyrs, suffering for the glory of God.
Though I demote to liberal pumps Womann accessory and black for individual would, I've breasted to believe that the Latest liberal approach to injuries is happily misguided. Evolution is acutely fetish up with a few of community, and a shame of bordering is drive for the conventional. So far the straight has crossed over 40 years through villages and new lands.
Elephant Appreciation Day is on September 22 and was found